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JSTOR helps people discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content through a powerful research and teaching platform, and preserves this content for future generations. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization that also includes Ithaka S+R and Portico. For more information about JSTOR, please contact email@example.com. ( 204 ) XIV. — Explanatory Notes on two Maps of Patagonia. By Mr. H. L. Jones. Communicated by the Foreign Office. Read, June 10, 1861. $m Buenos Ayres, 15th April, 1858. I beg leave to present to your Excellency two maps, de- lineated by me, of the southern part of this Continent, from the Atlantic to the Pacific, as far as our present knowledge permits. The part of the coast and country bordering the Atlantic is generally from my own knowledge and from several itineraries which I have procured during a long residence in these countries, having, between 1815 and 1828, made several journeys from the river Negro to Buenos Ayres by land. In my first journey in January, 1815, I remained more than a month in the tents of a friendly Cacique in the " Sierra de la Ventana," who detained me by the excuse of ensuring my safety in another tribe of Indians on the route. I employed myself in examining the neighbourhood of these mountains in every direction ; to the west unto the Salinas. For many years I have had oiling establishments in the deep bays between White Bay and the Bay of San Bias. In Brightman Bay, the mouth of the river Colorado, Port Union, and the Bay of San Bias, I have had regular establishments, employing many men and horses, with small vessels. In consequence of my knowledge of this part of country, the Government of Buenos Ayres in 1828 entrusted to me the formation of a settlement or fort in White Bay. For years I had employed my endeavours to persuade the Ministers of the necessity of an establishment in this excellent port. I carried down the artillery and necessaries, and brought from River Negro the timber for the erection of the buildings. Before the arrival of a military force from Buenos Ayres, I had obtained, by treaty with the Caciques of the Telhuet Indians, the licence to form a fort, had examined this deep bay by sounding its channels, selecting the best spot for the establishment, and riding over the country in all directions. The River Negro, from near its source in the Cordilleras to its entrance into the Atlantic, is delineated from the exploration made by Don Basilio Villarino, by orders of the metropolitan govern- ment, in 1782. I have laid down, to the best of my ability, the many courses and distances in the windings of this river from the Journal of this indefatigable man. I have marked the passes of the Indians, the falls and banks which impeded the navigation, and the continuance of the high cliffs which confine the narrow valley of alluvial soil brought from the Cordillera and deposited on the river-side. Some alterations have been made from the ex- i — i — I — i — i — i — r Pui> a for the Join .'V J iturrav.Albfinarlr Jitr' London, 1861 . Jones's Notes on two Maps of Patagonia. 205 pedition of General Pacheco a few years ago, noted by Descalzi. In 1817 I made a journey up the River Negro as far as the island of Choelechel, in consequence of some peones from Patagonia having stolen the horses from my oiling establishment at San Bias. With an officer and some soldiers we examined the island, which is a resting-place of the Indians of the Cordillera, who steal cattle in the Estancias of Buenos Ayres. Learning that these men had crossed over northward to the River Colorado, a distance of 10 or 12 leagues, I found them, recovered my horses, and, following the stream of this last river, returned to San Bias. The direction of the eastern branch of the Andes, called by Don Luis de la Cruz in his Journal, Auca Mahuida, between the River Colorado and River Negro, is taken from his work in 1806. These mountains always running southward, it is established, from Villarino's account, where they cross the River Negro and take the name of the Balcliita Chain. To make the exploration of the River Chupat, in 1851 and 1855, I sent 140 horses from Patagonia, with Indians, guides, and peons, with a person capable of taking the courses and distances and making the necessary observations. I supplied him with what was necessary for the purpose. From the scarcity of water in the lakes by the drought so common in these countries, the guides found it necessary to follow up the River Negro nearly as high as the Island of Choele- chel, and from thence to cross south-west to the Balchita chain of mountains. Among these mountains they journeyed to the Chupat. Only Indians had before performed this long journey, and the tract was quite unknown ; it was performed in forty days. The chain is called Uttak by the Indians, and crosses the Chupat in a southerly direction. The coast around the deep Gulf of St. Matthew and across to the Rio Negro is from a journey which I made on foot after my shipwreck in the Gulf St. George, in 1814. Leaving our boat at the entrance of the Bay of St. Joseph, we proceeded to Port San Antonio, and from thence across to the River Negro by compass. The Peninsula of St. Joseph and the bay of the same name had been examined by me in every direction in 1816, in a sealing voyage with two schooners, when I brought horses from Pata- gonia with peons for the purpose of catching wild cattle to maintain the crew of the vessels. In 1819, I took 36 horses from Ensenada with 8 peons to discover the number of cattle in the Peninsula of St. Joseph. I passed four months in this operation, surveying the country in all directions. We calculated their number to be upwards of 15,000 head. In 1823, I formed a Company of four friends on shares, with a licence from the Government to kill the wild cattle. We brought 206 Jones's Notes on two Maps of Patagonia. from Patagonia 100 horses with Indians, and from Buenos Ayres 40 peons. I remained nearly a year travelling all over the Peninsula and its neighbourhood. We killed about 10,000 head, the remainder abandoned the Peninsula, and, following the coast south around the spacious bay called New Bay, came to the River Chupat. In November, 1814, I discovered by mere accident the spot where the River Chupat, or Chulilad, so called by the Moluches at its western part, enters the Atlantic. It had always been re- presented in the Spanish maps as far south, in the Bay of Came- rones. As I have said before, I was shipwrecked in the Gulf of St. George, in my brig-schooner Lovely Eliza. Leaving thirty- five of the crew on Ship Island (or Island of Lions) short of pro- visions, I volunteered to proceed in a small boat we had saved, with six of the crew taken by lot, to Patagonia, to freight a vessel to save their lives in that barren spot, taking them to Buenos Ayres. Short of water in the boat, and in-shore we perceived in lat. 43° 21' piles of dry willow-trees on the beach ; landing, I found the mouth of the River Chupat. The exploration of this river in 1854 and 1855 was made in consequence of my having formed a Company for the purpose of making a permanent settlement. This motive was what was held out to the public, and caused me to enter into it. I took down eighty men in the brig Explorador, and the brig-of-wai* Maipu was placed at my orders. I have said before, 140 horses were sent by land. After examining the river for 25 or 30 leagues and the chain of the Cordillera Uttak, the country about New Bay, and to the south for 15 or 20 leagues ; after forming a deep ditch and four bastions, and erecting buildings to shelter 80 or 100 men, after passing risks, we were abandoned by the Company, main- taining ourselves by chasing guanacos with the Indian peons and horses. The works we had erected were destroyed. The reason of the abandonment was (as it was held out) that the cattle on the plains of the river had retired to the Uttak Mountains, having been persecuted by the Indians. Our horses from the plains of Buenos Ayres we found unfit on the rocky country among the mountains. Motives which caused my endeavours to establish a permanent settlement on the river, and convinced me of its utility to the settlers and to society in general : — 1. I considered the alluvial soil on the River Chupat fit for cultivation, and to supply refreshment to vessels going round Cape Horn, or coming from the Pacific, which at present obliges them to enter into the Falkland Islands, far east of their course. I consider the entrance of the river has facility for vessels of 150 tons. 2. The vicinity of the river to New Bay, capable of receiving the whole of the British navy, where the largest vessels can enter Jones's Notes on tivo Maps of Patagonia. 207 freely, and find sheltered anchorage. Three hours' run from the mouth of the Chupat, or half a tide, shows the distance of New Bay. 3. I calculated on the narrow breadth of the continent in this lat. 43° 21' ; the distance from the Atlantic to the Pacific in the Gulf Encud, being in a direct line about 120 leagues. The Bay of Desengano on the Atlantic side, and the Gulf of Encud on the Pacific, contract the breadth of the continent. It is proved, from Captain FitzRoy's observations, that the " Cordillera de los Andes," bordering on Encud, offer many passes, being, as he expresses himself no higher in many parts than the islands on the coast of the main land. That there are sheltered ports is also demon- stated in his works. Dr. Darwin, who accompanied Captain FitzRoy in the Beagle, after speaking highly of the advantages for a settlement on the Chupat, from its soil and verdure, concludes : " There is no necessity in showing the advantages to be derived in being able to open a communication across the continent by this river to Chiloe and Chile, which will tend to introduce civilisation, Christianity, and commercial intercouse." 4. The configuration of the globe demonstrates that this is the shortest course to Australia across the American continent. The time will come when the utility will be found, as 'shown in a work published in London in 1854 by Mr. Simmons. 5. My desire for forming a settlement also proceeded from a wish to be useful to the tribe of Indians, the Tuelches, for years faithful to me in these countries. They knew that we had a quantity of horses loose in the plains of the river ; not one was stolen. Having sent some Indians with my peons up the river to speak to them, upwards of 200 men with their families, and bringing the articles they had on sale, arrived a day or two after our de- parture from the river. Finding the establishment destroyed, they followed the coast to New Bay, expecting that I had entered there, which was not the case. 6. From a cursory examination of the Cordillera " Uttak," I have no doubt it contains mineral productions, as well as volcanoes. I have discovered specimens to form this opinion, and the sides of the river abound with volcanic scoria, brought by the current. It must be remembered that Australia was settled upwards of eighty years before its gold and copper were discovered. Your Excellency's obedient humble servant, H. L. Jones. Ills Excellency W. D. Christie, Esq., II. B. M.'s Minister Plenipotentiary to the Argentine Confederation.